The “Hawaiian – Emperor seamount chain” is a vast undersea mountain range interspersed with islands, underwater mountains (seamounts), atolls (ring shaped coral reefs encircling a lagoon), shallows, banks, reefs and more than 80 volcanoes, that extending across the Pacific Ocean for 3,728 miles (60,000 kilometers) from the Hawaiian islands to Alaska and Siberia. The chain has been forming during the last 70 to 80+ million years by volcano eruptions and movement of the ocean floor (the “Pacific Plate”) over a volcanic region known as the “Hawaii hotspot”. Closest to this hotspot is the Hawaiian archipelago (aka Windward islands) that includes eight main islands: Hawaii (aka ‘the Big Island’, the Island of Hawaii & Hawaii Island to distinguish it from the US state of Hawaii), Maui, Oahu, Kauai, Molokai, Lanai, Niihau, and Kahoolawe, a number of small islands, atolls, and seamounts, extending 1,500 miles (2,400 kilometers) from the Kure Atoll to the Big Island, the southernmost point of the Hawaiian – Emperor seamount chain.
The formation of the Big Island is the result of sequential and simultaneous eruptions of five ‘shield’ volcanoes (low profile, circular, slopping shield shaped volcanoes) over a period of about 300,000 – 600,000 years, and at 93 miles (150 km) across and a land area of 4,028 sq. miles (10,430 km²), it’s the largest of the Hawaiian islands and still growing because of the lava flow from currently active volcanoes, Mauna Loa and Kīlauea.
In accordance with beliefs and practices of the traditional Hawaiian religion, summits of the five Big Island volcanoes are revered by native Hawaiians as sacred mountains, and the powerful, passionate Fire Goddess, Pele, is believed to live within the Halema’uma’u crater located at the summit of Kīlauea. Pele’s domain, however, includes all volcanic activity on the Big Island, and she has the ability to cause lava to erupt from the ground at any time. She’s been a very busy goddess.
The Kīlauea Volcano
The name ‘Kīlauea’ is translated to ‘spewing’ or ‘much spreading’, referring to frequent lava flows originating from the volcano. The name is well-deserved as there have been 61 separate eruptions from Kīlauea since 1823, making it one of the most active volcanoes on planet Earth. Most of these eruptions have been relatively moderate and have occurred within one of its ‘rift zones’ with lava flows moving downslope. [A rift zone is an area of ruptures on the surface that allows lava to erupt and flow from the flank of a volcano instead of its summit.] However, Pele does periodically create havoc with explosive and sometimes deadly eruptions that expel molten rock and gases across the landscape.
Kīlauea’s most recent major eruption (dating back to January 3. 1983) is the longest period of volcanic activity in its documented history, and continues to this day from its summit and the volcanic cone, Puʻu ʻŌʻō (‘high point on the skyline’) located within Kīlauea’s East Rift Zone. [Volcanic cones are formed by the ejected magma rocks piling up around a vent.] As of December 2012, the lava flow from this eruption had covered 48 sq. miles of land, added 500 acres of land to the Big Island, destroyed 214 structures (including the community of Kapa’ahu, the historic Kalapana village, and two residential subddvisions), and buried 9 miles of highway as well as a black sand beach at Kaimu. [Update: On May 3, 2018, there was an eruption in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea, and lava appeared on the surface. See below for links to updates from the USGS- Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.]
Video: Story of Kīlauea Volcano’s summit lava lake, and the eruptive history of Halema‘uma‘u. Credit: US Geological Survey
See the lava flow from Kīlauea up close in HD. Two short videos, “Dawn of Fire” and “River of Fire”, (filmed and produced by Tyler Hulett) capture flowing molten lava as it moves toward the Pacific Ocean from Puʻu ʻŌʻō during daylight and night. It’s an incredible sight to see.
Kīlauea Continues to Erupt
Video: Eruption update of Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō , Halema‘uma‘u and the East Rift Zone in lower Puna (June 14, 2018) Credit: NPS/Daniel Hubner & Benjamin Hayes
Kīlauea Activity and Conditions: Report from USGS – Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (daily updates and warnings) and the Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park Service (park information and safety alerts) → “What’s Going on with the Volcano?”
Current Volcano Alert Level as of 6/15/2018: WARNING (on the ground) Hazardous eruption is imminent, underway, or suspected. Aviation Color Code (airborne ash hazards): RED Eruption is imminent with significant emission of volcanic ash into the atmosphere likely or eruption is underway, or suspected with significant emission of volcanic ash into the atmosphere [ash-plume height specified, if possible].
Activity Summary as of 6/15/2018: The eruption of lava continues from the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) in Leilani Estates with little change relative to the past few days.
Lava fountains from Fissure 8 reached heights of 200 ft overnight. The cinder and spatter cone that is building around the fissure is now about 165 ft at its highest point. Lava is flowing through the well-established channel from fissure 8 to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava.
Pele’s hair and other lightweight volcanic glass fragments from the lava fountain at Fissure 8 continue to fall downwind of the fissure, dusting the ground within a few hundred meters (yards) of the vent. High winds may waft lighter particles to greater distances.
Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park News Release (6/4/2018): Most of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park remains closed due to increased and damaging earthquakes, corrosive volcanic ash, and continuing explosions from Halema‘uma‘u, the summit crater of Kīlauea Volcano.
Volcanic Air Pollution: “Vog” (from the words ‘volcanic’ and ‘smog’) refers to the hazy air pollution caused by the volcanic gas emissions from Kīlauea as they react to the atmosphere. Vog can cause headaches as well as irritation to lungs and eyes; however, the effects are more serious for those with asthma or other respiratory problems. For information about current vog conditions and forecasts, potential health hazards, and advice on protective measures, visit the Hawaii Interagency Vog Information Dashboard.
Video: Lava entering ocean at Kamokuna. Credit: NPS/Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Public Domain
🔥 See stunning images of May 2018 Kīlauea eruption by photographer Mario Tama → Finding Perspective in the Heat of Hawaii’s Volcanic Explosions (Photo stories by NPR by Samantha Clark, May 31, 2018)
The first western visitors to Kīlauea were two missionaries in 1823, William Ellis, an Englishman, and American, Asa Thurston, and after the building of hotels on its rim in the 1840’s, Kīlauea became a tourist attraction. Today, it’s protected within the Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park and visited by 2.6 million people annually. The park offers visitors dramatic volcanic landscapes of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, archeological sites, historical places, and a look at rare flora, fauna and wildlife as well as hiking, biking, touring and camping. Popular stops are the Kilauea Visitor Center and the Thomas A. Jaggar Museum & observation deck. It’s also possible to view the spectacular sight of lava flowing into the Pacific Ocean at the Kamokuna entry point (as of January 2017), but visitors must be prepared for a long hike, ever-changing, hazardous conditions, and park closures.
Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park Find Kīlauea vistor information, including eruption/emission/lava flow updates, hiking & safety tips, photos & video
USGS – Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, Kīlauea history, status reports, updates & information
Wikipedia: Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii (Island), Kīlauea, List of volcanoes in the Hawaiian – Emperor seamount chain, Hawaiian religion, Pele
Scientific Study: In January 2017, a NASA-led science team began exploring Kīlauea and Mauna Loa from the air, ground and space to better understand volcanic processes and find ways to mitigate the hazards.
US National Parks: There are more than 400 US national parks available to everyone, every day. Most are free to enjoy, and the 117 that charge an entry fee (e.g., Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park) offer fee-free days throughout the year.
Find Your Park ← Use the search tools on this website to find the perfect place to visit.
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Feature photo credit: Puʻu ʻŌʻō, courtesy of GE Ulrich, USGS (Public Domain). [Note: Puʻu ʻŌʻō is a volcanic cone that allows lava flow eruptions from the eastern flank of the Kīlauea summit. It has been erupting since January 3, 1983.]
Image: Map of Hawaiian Islands, United States Geological Survey, Public Domain
Image: Simplified map of Kīlauea Volcano (2000) by J. Johnson, USGS, Public Domain
Photo: Kīlauea at Night is courtesy of NASA